# High School Chemistry Course

**Time4Learning offers an online, interactive high school chemistry curriculum that correlates to state standards.** It can be used as a primary homeschool curriculum, a supplement to your current curriculum and as an afterschool or summer skill building program. At the high school level, Time4Learning is organized by courses rather than grade levels, so parents have the option of choosing any four as part of membership.

**The Chemistry curriculum is one of five science courses offered at the high school level.** Chemistry is taught using a combination of multimedia lessons, instructional videos, worksheets, quizzes, tests and both online and offline projects. The Chemistry course is designed to prepare students for college level science.

**This page includes information about the material covered in the High School Chemistry course.**

### Chapter 1 – Science is a Process

**The materials in this chapter introduce and covers the idea that science is a process.** It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of how we process: measurement, how we process: significant digits and how we process: scientific notation.

**Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:**

**How we process: Measurement**– Students are taught how to collect data on mass, volume, and energy and how to perform measurements of mass and volume in chemistry.**How we process: Significant digits**– Students will learn how to correctly apply the rules for significant digits.**How we process: Scientific notation**– Students will learn how to correctly apply the rules for scientific notation.

### Chapter 2 – Organizing Matter Patterns

**The materials in this chapter introduce and cover organizing matter patterns.** It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of atoms: journey through time, how many or how much, periodic properties, electron configurations, covalent bonding, ionic bonding, metallic bonding, and molecular geometry.

**Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:**

**Atoms: Journey through time**– Students are required to review historical models of an atom, looking closely at the discovery of protons, electrons, and neutrons, and compare them with today’s model. Students will also use the periodic table to generate a list of each type of subatomic particle for any given atoms.**How many or how much**– Students learn how to apply information gained from their study of subatomic particles towards understanding the overall mass of an atom, and to define a mole. Students will also use Avogadro’s number to count the number of atoms in a substance.**Periodic properties**– Students must construct a series of periodic tables to show how they changed over time, and then be able to tell the difference between the families, groups, series, and periods. Students conclude the lesson by predicting periodic trends of elements, including atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, and electronegativity.**Electron configurations**– Students are taught how to use the periodic table to predict the number of electrons and electron shells are in atoms, and how to relate the electron energy levels to reactivity and light emission. Students finish the lesson by diagramming the electron configuration of many elements.**Covalent bonding**– Students are required to examine the ways in which electrons are shared between atoms to create covalent bonds. Students will then classify bonds based on bond length, and energy released or absorbed. The lesson concludes by discussing ways covalent bonds are used in real life.**Ionic bonding**– Students are required to examine the ways in which electrons are exchanged between atoms to create ionic bonds. Students will then classify bonds and name ions. The lesson concludes by discussing ways these bonds can be used in real life. Metallic bonding – Students are required to examine the ways in which electrons are shared between atoms to create metallic bonds. Students will then classify bonds and discuss ways they can be used in real life.**Molecular geometry**– Students will learn how to examine the geometry associated with bonding, which includes polarity, crystallization, and intermolecular forces.

### Chapter 3 – Language of Chemistry

**The materials in this chapter introduce and covers the language of chemistry.** It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of chemical formulas and compounds, chemical equations and reactions, balancing chemical equations and reactions and stoichiometry.

**Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:**

**Chemical formulas and compounds**– Students are taught how to investigate and apply rules for naming atoms, ions, and molecules.**Chemical equations and reactions**– Students learn how to apply the rules for naming atoms, ions, and molecules to overall chemical equations. Students will then examine the different types of chemical reactions, such as synthesis, decomposition, replacement, double replacement, and combustion.**Balancing chemical equations and reactions**– Students learn how to examine the law of conservation of mass and apply it to chemical equations. Students must then balance chemical equations and discuss why this is important.**Stoichiometry**– Students are required to perform stoichiometric calculations using the law of conservation of mass. Students will asked to look at a chemical formula and identify its molar mass and mole ratios.

### Chapter 4 – Phases of Matter

**The materials in this chapter introduce and covers the phases of matter.** It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of physical characteristics of gases, gas laws: Boyle’s law, gas laws: Charles’s law, gas laws: Gay-Lussac’s law, gas laws: combined gas law, ideal gas law, molecular composition of gases, liquids and solids and phase changes.

**Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:**

**Physical characteristics of gases**– Students are taught how to examine the kinetic-molecular theory. At the end of the lesson they will be able to predict the movement of molecules of gases under different circumstances, and express pressure as force per area.**Gas laws: Boyle’s law**– Students discover Boyle’s law in this lesson, which includes relating the pressure and volume of a gas to the average kinetic energy of its molecules.**Gas laws: Charles’s laws**– Students discover Charles’s law in this lesson, which includes relating the temperature and volume of gas to the average kinetic energy of its molecules.**Gas laws: Gay-Lussac’s law**– Students discover Gay-Lussac’s law in this lesson, which includes relating the temperature and pressure of gas to the average kinetic energy of its molecules.**Gas laws: Combined gas law**– Students discover the combined gas law in this lesson, which includes relating the volume, temperature, and pressure of a gas to the average kinetic energy of its molecules.**Ideal gas law**– Students will combine their knowledge of all of the gas laws, and use it to determine the performance of a gas in an ideal situation.**Molecular composition of gases**– Students are taught how to determine the molar mass of a gas using standard molar volume.**Liquids and solids**– Students will learn how to investigate molecular structure and kinetic energy in liquids and solids.**Phase changes**– Students conclude the lesson by examining and identifying the changes in kinetic energy required to change the state of a substance from solid to liquid to gas or the reverse.

In the high school Chemistry course, students learn about chemical reactions.

In this lesson, students will explore the five conditions that affect the rate of reaction.

### Chapter 5 – Solutions and Their Behavior

**The materials in this chapter introduce and covers solutions and their behavior.** It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of introduction to solutions, working with solutions, concentration of solutions, ions in aqueous solutions, colligative properties of solutions, acids and bases and acid-base titration and pH.

**Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:**

**Introduction to solutions**– Students are required to compare and contrast homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, including the types of homogeneous mixtures.**Working with solutions**– Students learn that temperature, pressure, and surface area affect the formation of solutions.**Concentration of solutions**– Students investigate how mass, volume, and concentration affect solutions.**Ions in aqueous solutions**– Students are taught how how dissociation and ionization affect solutions.**Colligative properties of solutions**– Students are required to explore how boiling-point elevation, freezing point depression, vapor-pressure lowering, and osmotic pressure affect solutions.**Acids and bases**– Students are introduced to the properties of acids and bases. Students must also recite Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry acid-base definitions; name acids and bases; and study how they are formed.**Acid-base titration and pH**– Students are taught what pH stands for, and how to determine the pH in various solutions. Students will also learn about the process of titration and how to calculate the concentration of a solution when the pH is known.

### Chapter 6 – Chemical Reactions

**The materials in this chapter introduce and covers chemical reactions.** It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of reaction energy and particle motion, reaction energy and reaction rate, chemical equilibrium and oxidation-reduction reactions.

**Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:**

**Reaction energy and particle motion**– Students are required to investigate the changes in kinetic energy in chemical reactions, which includes the overall cause of the reactions. Students must also be able to tell the difference between change in enthalpy and entropy in terms of particle motion, and how each affects the tendency of a reaction to occur.**Reaction energy and reaction rate**– Students are taught the five conditions that affect the rate of reaction.**Chemical equilibrium**– Students must investigate the nature of chemical equilibrium in a closed system. Students will then be required to write equilibrium expressions.**Oxidation-reduction reactions**– Students are taught how to explore oxidation-reduction reactions, which includes balancing, and apply that knowledge to real-life situations involving electrochemistry.

### Chapter 7: Organic Chemistry

**The materials in this chapter introduce and covers organic chemistry.** It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of carbon and organic compounds.

**Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:**

**Carbon**– Students learn how carbon atoms bond to each other. Students must then learn to tell the difference between the various types of bonds carbon can form. This includes single, double, and triple bonds.**Organic compounds**– Students are introduced to organic compounds. Students learn how to name and model the various forms of saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons, which includes chains and rings. The lesson concludes with the classification of natural and synthetic polymers.

### Chapter 8: Nuclear Chemistry

**The materials in this chapter introduce and covers nuclear chemistry.** It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of nucleus, radioactive decay and nuclear reactions.

**Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:**

**Nucleus**– Students are introduced to the nucleus of an atom. Students learn how protons and neutron numbers work together to keep a nucleus stable.**Radioactive decay**– Students must examine what makes a nuclide radioactive, as well as the way in which atoms decay to become more stable.**Nuclear reactions**– Students are taught to classify nuclear reactions as either fission or fusion. Students will conclude the lesson by investigating the efficiency of nuclear reactions in the production of energy.