High School Physical Science Course

Time4Learning offers an online, interactive high school science curriculum that correlates to state standards. It can be used as a primary homeschool curriculum, a supplement to your current curriculum and as an afterschool or summer skill building program. At the high school level, Time4Learning is organized by courses rather than grade levels, so parents have the option of choosing any four as part of membership.

Physical Science is one of five science courses offered at the high school level. The physical science curriculum addresses literacy in the form of vocabulary, fluency, comprehension and writing. Using a combination of labs, multimedia lessons, instructional videos, printable worksheets, quizzes, tests and both online and offline projects, the physical science course is designed to prepare students for the study of college level science and chemistry.

This page includes information about the materials covered in the Physical Science Course.

Chapter 1 – Scientific Processes

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover scientific processes. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of working in the physical science lab and scientific processing.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Working in the physical science lab – Students learn how to follow important safety guidelines when working in the lab, and how to identify proper and improper lab practices. Students are taught how to select appropriate equipment to use in an experiment, and how to use a triple beam balance, graduated cylinder and spring scale correctly.
  • Scientific processing – Students are taught how to identify the key components of an experiment, how to plan and implement an investigation, and how to collect and display appropriate data to form a valid conclusion.

Chapter 2 – States of Matter

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover states of matter. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concept of solids, liquids, and gases.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Solids, liquids, and gases – Students must be able to describe the properties of the states of matter including solid, liquid and gas with the understanding that this change in state is a physical change. Students must also have an understanding and be able to give proper examples of physical phenomena that can be explained by changes in the arrangement and motion of molecules, recognizing the heat transfer associated phase changes.

Chapter 3 – Properties of Matter

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover properties of matter. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of physical properties and physical properties verses chemical properties.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Physical properties – Students learn how to identify physical properties of matter, including volume, mass, density, phase change, ductility, malleability, and conductivity.
  • Physical properties verses chemical properties – Students are taught how to tell the difference between physical properties and chemical properties. Students must be able to give examples of each.

Chapter 4 – History of Atomic Theory

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover history of atomic theory. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of early ideas of the atom and electrons and modern atomic theory.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Early ideas of the atom – Students will review the historical development of the concept of the atom, including the contributions made by Dalton’s, Thomson’s and Rutherford’s atomic model.
  • Electrons and modern atomic theory – Students are required to identify and describe both Bohr’s atomic model and the Modern Atomic model.

Chapter 5 – Structure of the Atom

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover the structure of the atom. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concept of atomic structure.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Atomic structure – Students learn to identify each part of an atom, and list the attributes of each subatomic particle, which includes protons, neutrons, and electrons. Students must understand that atoms are the basic building blocks of matter.

Chapter 6 – Properties of Elements

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover properties of elements. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of elements and isotopes.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Elements – Students are taught how to determine whether a substance is an element. Students must then learn how to calculate the atomic mass and the find the number of neutrons.
  • Isotopes – Students are taught how to determine whether a substance is an isotope. Students must then learn how to calculate the atomic mass and find the number of neutrons of isotopes.

Chapter 7 – The Periodic Table

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover the periodic table. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of understanding the periodic table and structure of the periodic table.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Understanding the periodic table – Students are introduced to the periodic table, and will learn to use it to obtain the following information about the atom of an element: name, symbol, atomic number, atomic mass, and number of valence electrons.
  • Structure of the periodic table – Students are shown that the periodic table is organized in terms of groups or families and periods. Students are then taught how to use the periodic table to obtain the number of valence electrons in an atom of an element.

Chapter 8 – Chemical Bonding

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover chemical bonding. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of electron energy levels and valence electrons, ionic bonding, covalent bonding and covalent bonding verses ionic bonding.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Electron energy levels and valence electrons – Students will gain an understanding of the capacity of energy levels and the role of valence electrons in chemical bonding.
  • Ionic bonding – Students are taught that an atom can acquire an unbalanced electrical charge by gaining or losing electrons. The lesson continues by teaching students how this electrical charge causes atoms to form ionic bonds to become more stable
  • Covalent bonding – Students learn that bonds form between substances when outershell electrons are shared between their atoms, ultimately changing the properties of substances.
  • Covalent bonding verses ionic bonding – Students must be able to tell the difference between ionic and covalent bonding by the end of this lesson.

Chapter 9 – Balancing Equations

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover balancing equations. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concept of balance chemical equations.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Balance chemical equations – Students are taught how to write and balance chemical equations.

Chapter 10 – Chemical Reactions

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover chemical reactions. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of types of reactions and reaction rates.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Types of reactions – Students are taught that some types of chemical reactions require continuous input of energy, such as endothermic, while others release energy, such as exothermic.
  • Reaction rates – Students learn what factors influence reaction rates, such as concentration, temperature, and pressure.

Chapter 11 – Classifying Matter

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover classifying matter. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concept of classifying matter.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Classifying matter – Students are taught how to tell the difference between different types of matter. Students will also be required to classify samples of matter that they come across in everyday life as either being elements, molecules, compounds, or mixtures.

Chapter 12 – Acids and Bases

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover acids and bases. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of pH scale and acids and bases.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • PH Scale – Students learn how to relate the concentration of ions in a solution to chemical properties, such as pH, and analyze the pH of a solution and classify it as either acidic, basic or neutral.
  • Acids and bases – Students must analyze the pH of a substance and classify it as either acidic, basic or neutral.

Chapter 13 – Motion and Force

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover motion and force. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of observing motion, calculate speed, calculate velocity, calculate acceleration, inertia and momentum, balanced, unbalanced and net forces and Newton’s laws of motion.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Observing motion – Students are taught how to explain that the motion of an object is described by its position, velocity and acceleration, and that all motion is relative to whatever frame of reference is chosen, for there is no absolute motionless frame from which to judge all motion.
  • Calculate speed – Students are taught how to calculate speed in various systems.
  • Calculate velocity – Students are taught how to calculate velocity in various systems.
  • Calculate acceleration – Students are taught how to calculate acceleration in various systems.
  • Inertia and momentum – Students are required to list the differences between inertia and momentum, and then calculate momentum in various systems.
  • Balanced, unbalanced, and net forces – Students learn what balanced, unbalanced, and net forces are, and how to calculate net forces on a given object.
  • Newton’s laws of motion – Students are introduced to Newton’s laws of motion, and then given a chance to identify and describe situations where Newton’s laws of motion are used.

Chapter 14 – Gravity

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover gravity. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of gravity and mass verses weight.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Gravity – Students learn about the concept of gravity and how it effects objects. Students are also introduced to Newton’s law of universal gravitation. The lesson concludes with resistance and terminal velocity.
  • Mass verses weight – Students must learn the differences between mass and weight, and understand how to calculate both.

Chapter 15 – Work and Power

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover work and power. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of force verses work, work verses power and work and machines.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Force verses work – Students must learn the difference between force and work, and understand how to calculate work.
  • Work verses power – Students must learn the difference between work and power, and understand how to calculate power.
  • Work and machines – Students are taught how to explain how the concepts of work, force and motion apply to machines in the context of work input verses work output. Students must then be able to apply the concept of mechanical advantage to test and explain how a machine makes work easier and solve for mechanical efficiency.

Chapter 16 – Understanding Energy

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover understanding energy. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concept of understanding energy.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Understanding energy – Students are introduced to common forms of energy, such as potential energy and kinetic energy. Students learn that the energy in a system is the sum of both potential energy and kinetic energy. Students must also be able to use diagrams or concrete examples to differentiate relative amounts of potential and kinetic energy by the end of the lesson.

Chapter 17 – Wave Energy

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover wave energy. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of waves and wave behavior.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Waves – Students will learn to tell the difference between longitudinal and transverse waves, and understand the movement or behavior of surface waves when they encounter barriers. Students complete the lesson by identifying the basic components wavelength, amplitude, trough and frequency or period of a wave.
  • Wave behavior – Students are taught that waves move in different ways including interference, polarization, reflection, refraction, diffraction and resonate. Students must also learn to identify technological applications of sound wave behavior.

Chapter 18- Electromagnetic Spectrum

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover electromagnetic spectrum. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concept of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • The electromagnetic spectrum – Students are required to understand the composition of the electromagnetic spectrum and compare the various types of electromagnetic waves in terms of wavelength, frequency and energy. In addition, students learn how to identify the use of electromagnetic waves in various technological applications used in real world situations.

Chapter 19 – Electricity

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover electricity. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of electric forces and electric fields, electric current, voltage and resistance and electric circuits.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Electric forces and electric fields – Students are taught how to identify examples of electrical forces in real world situations and then explain how electric fields are created. Students will also review Benjamin Franklin’s role in electricity and Thomas Edison’s invention of the light bulb.
  • Electric current, voltage and resistance – Students learn that current, voltage and resistance affect how much electricity can flow through a circuit. Students must also calculate electrical current, power and energy in this lesson.
  • Electric circuits – Students must be able to tell the difference between series and parallel circuits and be able to recognize all of the components found within electrical circuits.

Chapter 20 – Magnetism

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover magnetism. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concept of magnets.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Magnets – Students are taught how to describe the properties of magnetic poles and how to understand the behavior of poles. By the end of the lesson, students will be able to tell how magnetic fields are created, and give examples of magnetic forces in real world situations.

Chapter 21 – Heat and Temperature

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover heat and temperature. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of temperature and heat transfer.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Temperature – Students must be able to tell the difference between heat and temperature and compare and contrast Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales. Students are also required to analyze a time and temperature graph of a phase change experiment to determine the temperature at which the phase change occurs.
  • Heat transfer – Students study the various ways of heat transfer. Students will also take a look at specific heat in order to calculate how much heat is gained, or how much heat is lost. Students learn how heat moves through solids, liquids and gases by convection, conduction and radiation. Students then must explain the effects of heating and cooling processes in these systems.

Chapter 22 – Nuclear Energy

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover nuclear energy. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of radioactivity and nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Radioactivity – Students are taught that the nucleus of a radioactive isotope is unstable and may spontaneously decay emitting particles and/or electromagnetic radiation. Students must then determine the half-life of radioactive elements using a graph. Students are also required to discuss the commercial use of nuclear energy, as well as the medical uses of radioisotopes.
  • Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion – Students will learn how to explain the difference between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Students will compare fission and fusion reactions in terms of the masses of the reactants and products, and the amount of energy released in the nuclear reactions.

 

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