High School Earth/Space Science Course Overview

Online Science Lessons, Labs, Activities, & Literacy Exercises

Time4Learning established in 2004
(888) 771-0914
PreK - 8th Grade
$19.95 / student
per month
$14.95 / month for each additional PreK - 8th student

High School
$30 / student
per month
Includes 4 Courses
Curriculum Uses
Curriculum Levels

Benefits

  • Online Curriculum for
    PreK to 12th Grades
  • 1,000+ Student-Paced Multimedia Activities
  • Language Arts, Math, Science & Social Studies
  • Interactive, Project-Based Activities
  • Detailed Reporting for
    Easy Record-Keeping
  • Lesson Plans & Teaching Tools for Parents
  • Lessons Correlated to State Standards

High School Earth/Space
Science Course

Time4Learning offers an online, interactive high school science curriculum that correlates to state standards. It can be used as a primary homeschool curriculum, a supplement to your current curriculum and as an afterschool or summer skill building program. At the high school level, Time4Learning is organized by courses rather than grade levels, so parents have the option of choosing any four as part of membership.

Earth/Space Science is one of five science courses offered at the high school level. The earth/space science curriculum addresses literacy in the form of vocabulary, fluency, comprehension and writing. Using a combination of labs, multimedia lessons, instructional videos, printable worksheets, quizzes, tests and both online and offline projects, the earth/space science course is designed to prepare students for the study of college level science and chemistry.

This page includes information about the materials covered in the Earth/Space Science course.

Voted #1 by Homeschool.com Family Friendly Website Green Certification CompassLearning Odyssey iparenting BBB Online

Chapter 1 Intro to Earth/Space Science

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover intro to earth/space science. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of the spheres and matter and energy in earth systems.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • The spheres Students are introduced to the major spheres that make up the earth and space, such as geo-, atmo-, hydro-, cryo-, bio-, and the exosphere. Students will be required to give examples of interactions between two or more of these spheres, and explain how the spheres correspond to the traditional subjects within earth and space sciences.
  • Matter and energy in earth systems - Students learn how to define and give examples of matter and energy in terms of earth and space systems. Students will be able to discuss how matter and energy move and transform on the earth, within the earth, and between the earth and sun.

Chapter 2 Models of the Earth

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover models of the earth. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concept of mapping the earth.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Mapping the earth Students are taught how to read and decipher topographic and geographic maps.

Back to the top or sign up now.

Chapter 3 Plate Tectonics

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover plate tectonics. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concept of plate tectonics.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Plate tectonics - Students will uncover the theory of plate tectonics and review the evidence for it that has been accumulated over the past several decades. Students will also discuss the three plate boundaries and what occurs at each.

Chapter 4 - Earth's Structure and Energy

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover the earth's structure and energy. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of earth's interior, earthquakes and volcanoes.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Earth's interior Students will investigate the layers that make up the earth and their characteristics, such as thickness, composition, density, solid or liquid, and magnetism. Students will take a look at how gravitational and radioactive energy are created within the earth. Students will also review plate tectonics, convection currents, seismic waves, earthquakes, and volcanoes.
  • Earthquakes Students learn what an earthquake is and what causes an earthquake. Then students study the intensity and magnitude of an earthquake, where earthquakes tend to occur, and how earthquakes can be predicted. Students will learn the definitions of Richter scale, seismic waves, and plate tectonics.
  • Volcanoes - Students are taught the three main types of volcanoes, how a volcano's location is related to the type of material it ejects, and where current volcanoes are located. Students will investigate whether volcanic eruptions can be predicted, and how volcanic activity is related to plate tectonics. The lesson concludes with information on how a student can protect himself in the event of a volcanic eruption.

Back to the top or sign up now.

Chapter 5 Earth's Composition

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover the earth's composition. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of minerals, the rock cycle, igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks and earth's resources.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Minerals Students will review how minerals are classified and formed, such as silicate and nonsilicate. Students are required to describe how minerals and rocks are related, and what the basic physical and chemical properties and techniques are that can be used to properly identify minerals.
  • The rock cycle Students are introduced to the rock cycle. They will be required to describe the differences between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, including how each set of rocks is transformed into another set.
  • Igneous rocks Students must list the two types of igneous rocks, what their characteristics are, and how they are formed and classified. Students will also need to explain how cooling rate, pressure, and time affect crystallization, rock texture, and rock type.
  • Sedimentary rocks Students must list the three types of sedimentary rocks, what their characteristics are, and how they are formed and classified.
  • Metamorphic rocks Students must list the two basic types of metamorphic rocks, what their characteristics are, and how they are formed and classified.
  • Earth's resources Students will review what the main energy and mineral resources are, how these resources are obtained, and how the use of these resources affects the environment and the earth. Students will be able to define renewable and nonrenewable resources.

Chapter 6 - Erosion and Deposition

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover erosion and deposition. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concept of weathering, erosion, and deposition.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Weathering, erosion, and deposition Students must define weathering, erosion, and deposition. Students will need to list the differences between mechanical weathering and chemical weathering, the main types of the weathering processes, and the types of surface and subsurface features are created by weathering.

Back to the top or sign up now.

Chapter 7 Earth's History

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover earth's history. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of landform development, relative age, absolute age, fossils and geologic time.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Landform development - Students will discover the types of landforms that exist, as well as the tools needed for classifying them. Students will then describe the connection between landforms and human settlement.
  • Relative age Students are taught what the relative age is and how it can it can be used to determine a past event. Students will be required to list the differences between relative age and absolute time. The lesson concludes with a list of the main types of relative age dating techniques and how they are used to unravel ancient historical events.
  • Absolute age Students are taught what the absolute age is and how it can be used to determine a past event.
  • Fossils Students are introduced to fossils, how they are formed, and in what ways they can be used to help interpret the earth's past. Students will also list some key types of fossils.
  • Geologic time Students are taught how to describe the geologic time scale, and discuss how it is subdivided. Students will study the Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras, take a look at what fossil evidence characterizes them, and list any key divisions within them. Students will explore where rocks of these ages are exposed in our time, and how the Grand Canyon was formed.

Chapter 8 Earth's Atmosphere

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover earth's atmosphere. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of composition & structure of earth's atmosphere and evolution of earth's atmosphere.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Composition & structure of earth's atmosphere Students will discover what the chemical composition and thermal structure of the earth's atmosphere is.
  • evolution of earth's atmosphere Students will investigate how earth's atmosphere has evolved over geologic time, and how these changes have affected the other spheres.

Back to the top or sign up now.

Chapter 9 - Weather and Climate

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover weather and climate. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of humidity, clouds, and precipitation, wind, air masses, and fronts, weather and climate, weather, weather forecasting and climate.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Humidity, clouds, and precipitation Students are introduced to the water cycle, and how it relates to energy. Students will be required to list the basic forms of precipitation and how eat one forms. Students conclude the lesson by discussing relative humidity and dew point, and how they relate to the formation of clouds and precipitation.
  • Wind, air, masses, and fronts Students are taught what causes wind to form. Students also learn the definitions of air masses and fronts, and then investigate them to determine how they develop.
  • Weather and climate Students must determine what patterns of circulation are in the atmosphere, and what causes those patterns to develop.
  • Weather Students are required to list the basic types of severe weather events and tell what causes each.
  • Weather forecasting Students learn about weather forecasting and the instruments used to predict the weather. Students will review the types of weather data that are used to predict the weather, and how computers relate to gathering data.
  • Climate Students must define climate and discuss why it has changed over time.

Chapter 10 Fresh Water

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover fresh water. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of streams and drainage systems and groundwater and caves.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Streams and drainage systems Students must uncover how streams and drainage systems are created and destroyed.
  • Groundwater and caves Students are required to describe groundwater movement and storage. Students must also have a good understanding of how caves are formed, and what some of their features are. The lesson concludes with an explanation as to how water quality is affected by land use decisions.

Back to the top or sign up now.

Chapter 11 Oceans

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover oceans. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of ocean water, currents and ocean basins.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Ocean water Students research the chemical composition that makes up ocean water, and how the ocean absorbs and stores energy and carbon. Students will also review how the density, temperature, and pressure of seawater varies with among certain depths and locations.
  • Currents Students investigate the difference between surface and deep currents, and what causes each to occur. Students must then discuss the effects of currents on the earth and its people.
  • Ocean basins Students are taught how ocean basins are formed geologically, and how they affect global ocean circulation. Students must list the features of ocean basins and what compositions make up the oceanic crust.

Chapter 12 Glaciers

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover glaciers. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of glacier anatomy and movement, glacier deposits and landforms and glaciers and climate.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Glacier anatomy and movement Students are taught the two different types of glaciers, and what characteristics describe an active glacier. Students will also take a look at what types of erosional and depositional evidence glaciers leave behind.
  • Glacier deposits and landforms Students must list the classic glacier landscapes and give evidence for each.
  • Glaciers and climate Students will review past climate changes in order to uncover evidence that reveals the start and end of the ice ages.

Back to the top or sign up now.

Chapter 13 - Historical Astronomy

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover historical astronomy. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of basic astronomical navigation, astronomical measurements and historical astronomy.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Basic astronomical navigation Students are introduced to the basic navigational principles that astronomers use to locate objects in space.
  • Astronomical measurements Students learn what kinds of measurements astronomers make, and what the key types of distance measurements are. Students also learn what an astronomical unit is and how it is used, and what a light-year is and how it is calculated. The lesson concludes with a parsec and how is it determined.
  • Historical astronomy Students are taught about the great astronomers of the past, and what each of their achievements were. Students will also use Kepler's laws to describe orbital motion.

Chapter 14 Earth's Solar System

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover earth's solar system. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of formation and history of the solar system, planet earth, formation and history of the moon, earth-moon-sun system, the terrestrial planets, asteroids and meteoroids, the gas giants, comets and the sun.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Formation and history of the solar system Students review the history of the solar system, including how it was formed and why Pluto is no longer considered a planet.
  • Plant earth Students discuss the earth and what makes it unique.
  • Formation and history of the moon Students review the history of the moon, including how it was formed. Students will also discuss the the Apollo missions and what was learned from them.
  • Earth-moon-sun system Students are taught the phases of the moon, the eclipses of the sun, and how the sun and moon affect the tides on earth.
  • The terrestrial planets Students will discuss the similarities and differences among Mercury, Venus, and Mars.
  • Asteroids and meteoroids Students must learn the definition of an asteroid and tell where the asteroid belt can be found. Students must also be able to point out the differences between an asteroid and a meteoroid, and discuss how asteroids and meteoroids affected the development of Earth and other planetary bodies? Students conclude the lesson by learning to distinguish between a meteoroid, meteor, and meteorite.
  • The gas giants Students will discuss the similarities and differences between Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus.
  • Comets Students learn the definition of a comet, how and where they form, and what evidence there is that they have impacted the Earth and other planets in our solar system. Students will list some famous comets, and discuss how comets have affected earth's history.
  • The sun Students learn what type of star the sun is, and what its defining characteristics are, such as motions, sunspots, size, chemistry, age, temperature, and layers. Students conclude the lesson by discussing how the Sun affects the Earth and the rest of the solar system.

Back to the top or sign up now.

Chapter 15 Stars

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover stars. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of life cycle of stars/stellar evolution, types of stars, black holes and Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Life cycle of stars/stellar evolution Students learn how stars are formed. Students will investigate what determines what kind of star will form and how it will live and die.
  • Types of stars Students learn what types of stars exist and list examples of each type. Students must also describe how planetary nebulae form.
  • Black holes Students will gain an understanding of what type of star forms a black hole, what the black hole's characteristics are, and what types of black holes exist.
  • Hertzsprung-Russell diagram Students must learn what a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is and how to use it. Students must know what information is displayed on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and how the diagram explains the life cycle of stars. Students conclude the lesson by determining stellar distances, sizes, masses, and colors from the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

Chapter 16 Galaxies

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover galaxies. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of classification of galaxies and Milky Way galaxy.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Classification of galaxies Students will learn what a galaxy is and what three basic types exist. Students will also be able to tell the difference between open and globular clusters.
  • Milky Way galaxy Students are introduced to the Milky Way galaxy and its characteristics. Students will discuss the relationship of the Milky Way galaxy to our universe and our solar system.

Back to the top or sign up now.

Chapter 17 Cosmology

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover cosmology. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concept of cosmology.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Cosmology Students learn what cosmology is and what some of its current topics are. Students also investigate how the universe began, and speculate as to how it might end.

Chapter 18 - Space Exploration

The materials in this chapter introduce and cover space exploration. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concept of space exploration.

Lessons in this chapter are organized into the following sections:

  • Space exploration Students will take a look at how space was explored in the past, and compare it to how space is explored today. Students will also have the opportunity to take a look at the research of the McDonald Observatory to understand current topics that are relevant to today.

Back to the top or sign up now.