Spelling Glossary by Time4Learning

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Spelling Glossary

Abbreviations: The shortened version of a word (Ave.=Avenue).

Acronyms: Phrases that are abbreviated by using letters from the phrase (NASA = National Aeronautics and Space Administration).

Affixes: A part (morpheme) attached to the root word, such as a prefix or suffix (Unimaginable, reheat)

Beginning Consonant Digraphs: Two consonants at the beginning of a word that when joined make one sound (chair, shirt).

Consonant Blends: Consonants that when joined together can produce the sound of each consonant (flow, cradle, speed).

Dolch Words: A list of the most commonly used words, comprised by E.W. Dolch in 1936, which are generally learned as sight words (the, it, was, I).

Ending Consonant Digraphs: Two consonants at the end of a word that when joined make one sound (march, swish, path).

Etymology: The history of language through the study of word origins.

High Frequency Words: The most commonly used words in print (the, a, to, I).

Homographs: Words that are spelled the same, but have different meanings and pronunciations. (bass, bow, close, desert)

Homonyms: Words that have the same spelling and pronunciation, but varying meanings (spruce as in to clean or spruce as in a type of tree).

Homophones: Words that sound the same but are spelled differently and have different meanings (here and hear, see and sea).

Inflectional Endings: The combination of root words and endings to indicate a plural or verb tense (stars,played, running).

Long Vowels: Vowels generally take a long sound when they are followed by a consonant and the letter e (cake, side, mope), or when they are placed next to another vowel (maid, eat, pie), or when they are at the end of a word (he, go, why).

Prefix: The beginning part of a word that precedes the root word (precook, undo, resend).

Multi-syllabic Words: Words that contain more than one syllable(can-teen, pre-dic-tion, sor-row-ful)

R-Controlled Vowels: Vowels that when placed next to the letter r, take on the r-sound as a blend (car, bird, her).

Root Word: The part of a word, giving it meaning. A prefix or suffix can be added to it. (reread, swimming, sounded)

Short Vowels: Single vowels usually make a short sound and appear between two consonants (cat, bed, hid) or in the beginning of a word (at, us, ink).

Sight Words: Words that are commonly used, but may not follow phonetic spelling rules, and as a result are frequently learned through sight memorization.

Suffix: The end part of a word that follows the rootword (happily, enjoyable, referral).

Syllables: The phonological organization and segmentation of words in parts (hap-pi-ly, en-ter-tain-ment)

Typology: The study of words within a specific context (political terms-election, math terms-Pythagorean, biology terms-Ecosystem)

Vowel-Consonant-E: Spelling with a vowel, followed by a consonant and the letter /e/ to give a long vowel sound (cake, mine, rope, dune)

Vowel Digraphs: Two vowels joined together to make one sound, usually the sound of the first vowel (coat, team, paid).

Vowel Diphthongs: A pair of vowels that when joined, create both sounds (boy, cow, paw, coil).


The language arts is GREAT for helping with phonics and beginner reading skills... Plus, the lessons are thoroughly entertaining!

Here at Letter Stadium, first graders learn
about "r-controlled vowels" from the
Phonics Football Players.

1st grade phonics